C++ Constructor Overloading

In this tutorial, we will learn about constructor overloading in C++ with the help of examples.

Constructors can be overloaded in a similar way as function overloading.

Overloaded constructors have the same name (name of the class) but the different number of arguments. Depending upon the number and type of arguments passed, the corresponding constructor is called.


Example 1: Constructor overloading

// C++ program to demonstrate constructor overloading
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Person {
   private:
    int age;

   public:
    // 1. Constructor with no arguments
    Person() {
        age = 20;
    }

    // 2. Constructor with an argument
    Person(int a) {
        age = a;
    }

    int getAge() {
        return age;
    }
};

int main() {
    Person person1, person2(45);

    cout << "Person1 Age = " << person1.getAge() << endl;
    cout << "Person2 Age = " << person2.getAge() << endl;

    return 0;
}

Output

Person1 Age = 20
Person2 Age = 45

In this program, we have created a class Person that has a single variable age.

We have also defined two constructors Person() and Person(int a):

  • When the object person1 is created, the first constructor is called because we have not passed any argument. This constructor initializes age to 20.
  • When person2 is created, the second constructor is called since we have passed 45 as an argument. This constructor initializes age to 45.

The function getAge() returns the value of age, and we use it to print the age of person1 and person2.


Example 2: Constructor overloading

// C++ program to demonstrate constructor overloading
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Room {
   private:
    double length;
    double breadth;

   public:
    // 1. Constructor with no arguments
    Room() {
        length = 6.9;
        breadth = 4.2;
    }

    // 2. Constructor with two arguments
    Room(double l, double b) {
        length = l;
        breadth = b;
    }
    // 3. Constructor with one argument
    Room(double len) {
        length = len;
        breadth = 7.2;
    }

    double calculateArea() {
        return length * breadth;
    }
};

int main() {
    Room room1, room2(8.2, 6.6), room3(8.2);

    cout << "When no argument is passed: " << endl;
    cout << "Area of room = " << room1.calculateArea() << endl;

    cout << "\nWhen (8.2, 6.6) is passed." << endl;
    cout << "Area of room = " << room2.calculateArea() << endl;

    cout << "\nWhen breadth is fixed to 7.2 and (8.2) is passed:" << endl;
    cout << "Area of room = " << room3.calculateArea() << endl;

    return 0;
}

Output

When no argument is passed: 
Area of room = 28.98

When (8.2, 6.6) is passed.
Area of room = 54.12

When breadth is fixed to 7.2 and (8.2) is passed:
Area of room = 59.04
  • When room1 is created, the first constructor is called. length is initialized to 6.9 and breadth is initialized to 4.2.
  • When room2 is created, the second constructor is called. We have passed the arguments 8.2 and 6.6. length is initialized to the first argument 8.2 and breadth is initialized to 6.6.
  • When room3 is created, the third constructor is called. We have passed one argument 8.2. length is initialized to the argument 8.2. breadth is initialized to the 7.2 by default.

Recommended Tutorial: C++ Function Overloading.