Kotlin Operators

# Kotlin Operators

#### Kotlin has a set of operators to perform arithmetic, assignment, comparison operators and more. You will learn to use these operators in this article.

Operators are special symbols (characters) that carry out operations on operands (variables and values). For example, `+` is an operator that performs addition.

In Java variables article, you learned to declare variables and assign values to variables. Now, you will learn to use operators perform various operations on them.

## 1. Arithmetic Operators

Here's a list of arithmetic operators in Kotlin:

Kotlin Arithmetic Operators
Operator Meaning
+ Addition (also used for string concatenation)
- Subtraction Operator
* Multiplication Operator
/ Division Operator
% Modulus Operator

### Example: Arithmetic Operators

``````fun main(args: Array<String>) {

val number1 = 12.5
val number2 = 3.5
var result: Double

result = number1 + number2
println("number1 + number2 = \$result")

result = number1 - number2
println("number1 - number2 = \$result")

result = number1 * number2
println("number1 * number2 = \$result")

result = number1 / number2
println("number1 / number2 = \$result")

result = number1 % number2
println("number1 % number2 = \$result")
}```
```

When you run the program, the output will be:

```number1 + number2 = 16.0
number1 - number2 = 9.0
number1 * number2 = 43.75
number1 / number2 = 3.5714285714285716
number1 % number2 = 2.0```

The `+` operator is also used for the concatenation of `String` values.

### Example: Concatenation of Strings

``````fun main(args: Array<String>) {

val start = "Talk is cheap. "
val middle = "Show me the code. "
val end = "- Linus Torvalds"

val result = start + middle + end
println(result)
}``````

When you run the program, the output will be:

`Talk is cheap. Show me the code. - Linus Torvalds`

### How arithmetic operators actually work?

Suppose, you are using `+` arithmetic operator to add two numbers a and b.

Under the hood, the expression `a + b` calls `a.plus(b)` member function. The `plus` operator is overloaded to work with `String` values and other basic data types (except Char and Boolean).

```// + operator for basic types
operator fun plus(other: Byte): Int
operator fun plus(other: Short): Int
operator fun plus(other: Int): Int
operator fun plus(other: Long): Long
operator fun plus(other: Float): Float
operator fun plus(other: Double): Double

// for string concatenation
operator fun String?.plus(other: Any?): String
```

You can also use `+` operator to work with user-defined types (like objects) by overloading `plus()` function.

Here's a table of arithmetic operators and their corresponding functions:

Expression Function name Translates to
a + b plus a.plus(b)
a - b minus a.minus(b)
a * b times a.times(b)
a / b div a.div(b)
a % b mod a.mod(b)

## 2. Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used to assign value to a variable. We have already used simple assignment operator `=` before.

`val age = 5`

Here, 5 is assigned to variable age using `=` operator.

Here's a list of all assignment operators and their corresponding functions:

Expression Equivalent to Translates to
a +=b a = a + b a.plusAssign(b)
a -= b a = a - b a.minusAssign(b)
a *= b a = a * b a.timesAssign(b)
a /= b a = a / b a.divAssign(b)
a %= b a = a % b a.modAssign(b)

### Example: Assignment Operators

``````fun main(args: Array<String>) {
var number = 12

number *= 5   // number = number*5
println("number  = \$number")
}``````

When you run the program, the output will be:

`number = 60`

## 3. Unary prefix and Increment / Decrement Operators

Here's a table of unary operators, their meaning, and corresponding functions:

Operator Meaning Expression Translates to
+ Unary plus +a a.unaryPlus()
- Unary minus (inverts sign) -a a.unaryMinus()
! not (inverts value) !a a.not()
++ Increment: increases value by1 ++a a.inc()
-- Decrement: decreases value by 1 --a a.dec()

### Example: Unary Operators

``````fun main(args: Array<String>) {
val a = 1
val b = true
var c = 1

var result: Int
var booleanResult: Boolean

result = -a
println("-a = \$result")

booleanResult = !b
println("!b = \$booleanResult")

--c
println("--c = \$c")
}``````

When you run the program, the output will be:

``````-a = -1
!b = false
--c = 0``````

## 4. Comparison and Equality Operators

Here's a table of equality and comparison operators, their meaning, and corresponding functions:

Operator Meaning Expression Translates to
> greater than a > b a.compareTo(b) > 0
< less than a < b a.compareTo(b) < 0
>= greater than or equals to a >= b a.compareTo(b) >= 0
<= less than or equals to a < = b a.compareTo(b) <= 0
== is equal to a == b a?.equals(b) ?: (b === null)
!= not equal to a != b !(a?.equals(b) ?: (b === null))

Comparison and equality operators are used in control flow such as if expression, when expression, and loops.

### Example: Comparison and Equality Operators

``````fun main(args: Array<String>) {

val a = -12
val b = 12

// use of greater than operator
val max = if (a > b) {
println("a is larger than b.")
a
} else {
println("b is larger than a.")
b
}

println("max = \$max")
}```
```

When you run the program, the output will be:

```b is larger than a.
max = 12
```

## 5. Logical Operators

There are two logical operators in Kotlin: `||` and `&&`

Here's a table of logical operators, their meaning, and corresponding functions.

Operator Description Expression Corresponding Function
|| `true` if either of the Boolean expression is `true` `(a>b)||(a<c)` `(a>b)or(a<c)`
&& true if all Boolean expressions are `true` `(a>b)&&(a<c)` `(a>b)and(a<c)`

Note that, `or` and `and` are functions that support infix notation.

Logical operators are used in control flow such as if expression, when expression, and loops.

### Example: Logical Operators

``````fun main(args: Array<String>) {

val a = 10
val b = 9
val c = -1
val result: Boolean

// result is true is a is largest
result = (a>b) && (a>c) // result = (a>b) and (a>c)
println(result)
}``````

When you run the program, the output will be:

`true`

## 6. in Operator

The `in` operator is used to check whether an object belongs to a collection.

Operator Expression Translates to
in a in b b.contains(a)
!in a !in b !b.contains(a)

### Example: in Operator

``````fun main(args: Array<String>) {

val numbers = intArrayOf(1, 4, 42, -3)

if (4 in numbers) {
println("numbers array contains 4.")
}
}``````

When you run the program, the output will be:

`numbers array contains 4.`

## 7. Index access Operator

Here are some expressions using index access operator with corresponding functions in Kotlin.

Expression Translated to
`a[i]` `a.get(i)`
`a[i, n]` `a.get(i, n)`
`a[i1, i2, ..., in]` `a.get(i1, i2, ..., in)`
`a[i] = b` `a.set(i, b)`
`a[i, n] = b` `a.set(i, n, b)`
`a[i1, i2, ..., in] = b` `a.set(i1, i2, ..., in, b)`

### Example: Index access Operator

``````fun main(args: Array<String>) {

val a  = intArrayOf(1, 2, 3, 4, - 1)
println(a)
a= 12
println(a)
}```
```

When you run the program, the output will be:

```2
12```

## 8. Invoke Operator

Here are some expressions using invoke operator with corresponding functions in Kotlin.

Expression Translated to
`a()` `a.invoke()`
`a(i)` `a.invoke(i)`
`a(i1, i2, ..., in)` `a.inkove(i1, i2, ..., in)`
`a[i] = b` `a.set(i, b)`

In Kotlin, parenthesis are translated to call `invoke` member function.

### Bitwise Operation

Unlike Java, there are no bitwise and bitshift operators in Kotlin. To perform these task, various functions (supporting infix notation) are used:

• `shl` - Signed shift left
• `shr` - Signed shift right
• `ushr` - Unsigned shift right
• `and` - Bitwise and
• `or` - Bitwise or
• `xor` - Bitwise xor
• `inv` - Bitwise inversion