 # Python Mathematical Functions

## What is math module in Python?

The `math` module is a standard module in Python and is always available. To use mathematical functions under this module, you have to import the module using `import math`.

``````# Square root calculation

import math
math.sqrt(4)``````

This module does not support `complex` datatypes. The cmath module is the complex counterpart.

## Functions in Python Math Module

Here is the list of all the functions and attributes defined in `math` module with a brief explanation of what they do.

List of Functions in Python Math Module
Function Description
ceil(x) Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to x.
copysign(x, y) Returns x with the sign of y
fabs(x) Returns the absolute value of x
factorial(x) Returns the factorial of x
floor(x) Returns the largest integer less than or equal to x
fmod(x, y) Returns the remainder when x is divided by y
frexp(x) Returns the mantissa and exponent of x as the pair (m, e)
fsum(iterable) Returns an accurate floating point sum of values in the iterable
isfinite(x) Returns True if x is neither an infinity nor a NaN (Not a Number)
isinf(x) Returns True if x is a positive or negative infinity
isnan(x) Returns True if x is a NaN
ldexp(x, i) Returns x * (2**i)
modf(x) Returns the fractional and integer parts of x
trunc(x) Returns the truncated integer value of x
exp(x) Returns e**x
expm1(x) Returns e**x - 1
log(x[, b]) Returns the logarithm of x to the base b (defaults to e)
log1p(x) Returns the natural logarithm of 1+x
log2(x) Returns the base-2 logarithm of x
log10(x) Returns the base-10 logarithm of x
pow(x, y) Returns x raised to the power y
sqrt(x) Returns the square root of x
acos(x) Returns the arc cosine of x
asin(x) Returns the arc sine of x
atan(x) Returns the arc tangent of x
atan2(y, x) Returns atan(y / x)
cos(x) Returns the cosine of x
hypot(x, y) Returns the Euclidean norm, sqrt(x*x + y*y)
sin(x) Returns the sine of x
tan(x) Returns the tangent of x
degrees(x) Converts angle x from radians to degrees
acosh(x) Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of x
asinh(x) Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of x
atanh(x) Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of x
cosh(x) Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x
sinh(x) Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x
tanh(x) Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x
erf(x) Returns the error function at x
erfc(x) Returns the complementary error function at x
gamma(x) Returns the Gamma function at x
lgamma(x) Returns the natural logarithm of the absolute value of the Gamma function at x
pi Mathematical constant, the ratio of circumference of a circle to it's diameter (3.14159...)
e mathematical constant e (2.71828...)